Explain the process of cancer, the effects on the human body, the various types, and the risk factors involved.

Introduction   In order for organisms to grow, repair, maintain, and reproduce, cells undergo cell division. Sometimes, cells uncontrollably divide, resulting in cancer. In the first part of the Cancer and Cell Division Lab, you will learn about normal cell division and will compare it to cell division that occurs in cancer cells. You will then visit a website to find out more information about cancer. You will learn why it occurs, why it kills, and new treatments that are being tested and used to treat cancer.   Objectives   Explain the process of cancer, the effects on the human body, the various types, and the risk factors involved. Explain various treatments for cancer. Explain the various stages of mitosis. Materials   No extra materials will be required to complete this lab other than internet service.   Directions   Go to the following website:http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/virtual_labs/BL_23.html_ Follow the steps under the PROCEDURE section. Type all answers directly on the data sheet. Select Save As, and save this document using your last name and student ID as the file name. Upload the data sheet as a .doc, .docx, or .rtf file when you are finished.   While viewing the video, answer the following questions. Total: 8 points   1.In which stage of cell division is the DNA copied? (4 points)   2.During which stage of mitosis do the chromosomes line up in the middle? (4 points)     After viewing the video, click on the Information tab in the bottom right corner. Answer the following questions. Total: 12 points   1.In which of the cancer types listed, are males not at risk of developing? (4 points)     2. Cigarette smoke is a major risk factor for which type of cancer listed? (4 points)     3 The risk for which type of cancer increases after the age of 55? (4 points)   Continue following the directions under the PROCEDURE section, and complete the following table. Total: 40 points      

  Interphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase %of Cell Dividing %of Cells at rest
Normal Lungs              
Cancerous Lungs              
Normal Stomach              
Cancerous Stomach              
Normal Ovary              
Cancerous Ovary              
            Continue following the directions under the PROCEDURES section and answer the following questions. Total: 12 points   1.Based on your data and observations, what are some of the differences between normal cells and cancer cells? (4 points)   2.Which type of cancer shows the most aggressive growth? Explain your answer. (4 points)   When studying cell division in tissue samples, scientists often calculate a mitotic index, which is the ratio of dividing cells to the total number of cells in the sample. Scientists often calculate the mitotic index to compare the growth rates of different types of tissue. 3.Which type of tissue would have a higher mitotic index, normal tissue or cancerous tissue? Explain. (4 points)     http://www.cancer.org   Click on Get Expert Information. Scroll down and click Cancer Basics. Read the sections Understanding Cancer, Cancer in the United States and Finding Cancer Information. After reading each of the Cancer Basics sections, go back to the Get Expert Information page and read about each major type of cancer: breast cancer, colon and rectal cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer and skin cancer. Answer the questions below. Total: 28 points     How many people in the US get cancer each year? (4 points)     What causes cancer? (4 points)     Since there are many different types of cancer, how is cancer named? (4 points) List two signs or symptoms of breast cancer. (4 points)     Can males develop breast cancer? (4 points)   What is the most common type of cancer? (4 points)     List two ways you could get involved and help fight against cancer. (4 points)  ]]>


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