Compose a 2000 words assignment on criminal justice towards crime prevention, victim responsibility and the minimization of risk. Needs to be plagiarism free! The field of criminology has undergone numerous and radical changes since the beginning of the twentieth century to become the way it is today. In order to understand this shift and its effect on criminology, a brief history of criminology is imperative. At the beginning of the twentieth century, criminology and criminal justice was a prerogative of the government only. Prior to the 1970s, criminal justice under the name modern criminology was characterized by the penal welfarism framework for dealing with criminals [Hall, 1978]. Under this approach, criminals were treated with humanity and decency and rehabilitating them was seen as the way to combat crime. In short, the penal welfare approach did not believe in punishing criminals, rather it used the foresaid correctional concept. Delinquents and criminals were regarded as unfortunate individuals who could benefit from societal and government support, and not as evil doers [Garland, 1985]. There were no general guidelines for dealing with criminals. each criminal act was handled individually. Criminologists were relied upon by the government to give expert advice on how to go about rehabilitating criminals, especially diagnostic treatment and penal sanctions [Taylor, Walton & Young, 1973]. Consequently, the penal welfare approach did not believe in punishing criminals. During the 1970s people began to challenge the effectiveness of the modern criminology approach, especially based on the penal welfare system [Donzelot, 1979]. The radicalization process had begun and people argued that rehabilitation and correctional approach were a total failure in containing crime. These radicals wanted the criminal justice system to be more linked to society and concerned about the interests of the victims [Schur, 1974]. In the early 1990s, however, there was the emergence of the late modernity model in which, there were fixed guidelines for the sentencing of criminals, as opposed to .sentencing criminals individually. .